When it freezes, its temperature ranges from -30ºC to -90ºC depending on the composition and structure of the water. For the purpose of comparison, the freezing point of water is -183ºC, but many people have a higher than this figure. The reason for the lower freezing point of water is that the molecules of water dissolve, and, through this process, the water absorbs additional entropy (heat). This will be demonstrated next, but first let’s see if this claim is true.
When the water turns water into ice (ice formation), the water molecules are not frozen; instead, the water molecules are left to continue to move as they normally would. These water molecules have many chemical bonds. Some bonds are long and a few are short. The temperature of the water molecule at which ice forms depends on the molecular structure of the water molecules. The longer molecules make the ice more likely to form, while molecules larger than water may have weaker bonds. If you hold both the ice crystal and two water molecules in your hands, it will become even harder to separate them. The longer molecules create a “crack” in the ice. In terms of temperature, the ice forms faster if you have a small (1/16″ to 1/8″) chunk of ice that is colder than a piece of water from the freezer. However, the ice molecules can only combine at a relatively low temperature – near freezing. At this temperature, there is a large amount of energy in the form of the gravitational force exerted on the ice. The greater the gravity, the more rapidly a water molecule can move toward the nucleus of the ice. The ice crystals will crack faster if they have an unstable nucleus, although the rate of cracking depends on how much the ice nucleus is unstable or if it has a strong magnetic field that resists breaking. If ice does not break, it has a greater likelihood of breaking. The temperature of water at which ice freezes is a function of the rate at which the molecules combine. The molecules dissolve more deeply into the water than the freezing point, so they are more subject to the forces of gravity. This is the rate of melting. This melting rate also depends on the chemistry of the molecules. Hydrogen is the most abundant molecular hydrogen in water, and it melts almost instantaneously (for a brief time after it has been dissolved). The rest of the water molecules are nitrogen, chlorine, argon, oxygen, and phosphorus. These components react with these elements to form carbon dioxide and water. Although oxygen is
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