This shows that a zero energy world is impossible – the energy levels are the same everywhere. If we have a low energy model, we will always have a lower level of free energy than the rest of the universe. This is because energy is conserved in time. In other words, energy always increases to the same value in the universe no matter what happens: energy does not go down.

Is a zero energy universe just a mathematical construct designed to convince sceptics?

This is where most free-energy theorists begin to fall apart. Zero energy in a model, such as the one Gibbs uses, is impossible. The free energy does not stay the same. The amount of free energy in any system is limited. Therefore, a zero energy universe is impossible. Gibbs is then forced to postulate other, higher energy levels, to give the universe some sort of a justification for free-energy. So what if the universe does have infinite levels of free energy? If that were the case, then we could say that the universe also has infinite temperature and infinite density. A zero energy world could not handle that. The point of the zero-energy theory is that it is impossible for things to have zero free energy.

There is a lot of controversy about what happens in a “zero-energy model”. Does he think there is no such thing as energy at all?

There is absolutely no doubt that energy does exist and that it’s a very big part of the universe. The big questions are: Does it exist in a finite state, or have we just made the universe finite? If infinite energy is just an illusion, then we can’t just say it does. If energy is infinite, then we need a model that explains why it’s infinite.

Why is the Free Energy Principle of Quantum Mechanics not an acceptable free-energy principle for quantum cosmology?

This question is particularly important for us because it shows that free energy is actually something we need to deal with, if we want to make progress in understanding the nature of the universe. Gibbs, for example, thinks that an infinite free energy means an infinite set of particles and energy levels. If that’s true, then we should have already calculated the number of particles and energy levels that could exist in the universe and concluded what we know in physics today! If an infinite set of particles were involved, we could now say, “Oh wait the universe is a quantum mechanical set”. That sounds like an important problem in quantum theory – it’s like

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